Artificial Intelligence- Defenition, History, goal AI, Types, and more

What Is Artificial Intelligence Mean

Artificial intelligence is the process of artificially implementing human thought or intelligence systems through technology-based devices or computers. The term intelligence is a combination of special qualities such as being able to conceive of a specific subject, decision making, ability to solve problems, learning from experience, gaining knowledge about any subject, being able to apply the earned knowledge, responding fastly and successfully to new situations. . Whenever it is possible to simulate these qualities in a system, it is called artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is the implementation of human intelligence and thinking power through artificial means through technology. It is a branch of computer science that seeks to mimic human intelligence and thinking by computers. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has now become a field of academic learning, teaching how to create computers and software that will demonstrate intelligence. Such as learning and problem-solving. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence displayed by the machine.

As machines become increasingly capable, intelligence needs to be removed from the definition of emotional convenience. The capabilities currently classified include being able to successfully understand human speech, tactical game systems, such as chess or higher-level competition, automated driving, military simulation, and interpreting complex data. AI research can therefore be subdivided into a number of sub-disciplines, focusing on specific issues, perspectives, use of specialized tools, or specific applications.

Artificial Intelligence History

Artificial humans capable of thinking originally emerged as storytelling instruments. However, the idea of ​​trying to create an instrument for actually demonstrating effective reasoning probably started in 1300 AD. With the invented calculus reticence, Gottfried Leibniz expanded the concept of the math machine. Wilhelm Schickard then carried out the first engineering work around 1823 to conduct operations on concepts rather than numbers. Artificial humans have become commonplace in science fiction since the nineteenth century, such as Mary Shali’s Frankenstein or Carroll Kepek’s Rasos’ Universal Robots.

Artificial Intelligence

The study of mechanical or formal reasoning was started by philosophers and mathematicians in ancient times. The study of mathematical logic pioneered the mathematical theory of Alan Turing, where a machine, the & lsquo; 0 & rsquo; And & lsquo; 1 & rsquo; Can make mathematical decisions by symbols. Through this, the digital computer that can mimic any process of formal reasoning came to be known as the Church-touring thesis. The discovery of neuroscience, information theory, and cybernetics increases the potential for researchers to build electric brains. The field of AI research was first established in 1956 in a workshop at Dartmouth College. Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research.

The newspaper described the program they and their students created as wonderful, winning computer games, solving algebra problems, proving logical theories, and being able to speak English. In the mid-1980s, the United States Department of Defense funded a wide range of artificial intelligence research and established a worldwide laboratory. AI founders were optimistic about its future. Herbert Simon predicted, & lsquo; The machine will be able to do what a man can do in 20 years. & Rsquo; Marvin Minsky agreed, & lsquo; The problem of creating artificial intelligence within a generation will be solved. & Rsquo; However, scientists failed to solve some of the work difficulties. As a result, progress in AI research slowed down and AIA research was discontinued in 1984.

AI began to be used for supply, data mining, medical diagnosis, and other purposes in the 1990s and early 21st century. Success was in increasing the power of computation, solving specific problems, developing new relationships among other fields, and making researchers’ mathematical methods and scientific standards stand on a promise. The Deep Blue machine became the first computer-controlled chess player to defeat Gary Kasparov, a chess champion, on June 11, 1998. The Alfano Zero software has been fighting & lsquo; Go & rsquo; against itself for three days. Reached a super-human level in terms of skills after playing a board game called The Excessive Risk Center says, & lsquo; The more powerful this method of artificial intelligence becomes, the more intelligent it will become. It may even exceed human capabilities in most cases. & Rsquo;

The computer is rapidly advancing statistical techniques, access to large amounts of information, and advances in learning and comprehension. Until mid-2010, machine learning applications were used all over the world. 2015 was a milestone year for artificial intelligence. The use of & lsquo; sporadic use & rsquo; Increased. In this case, the error rate has decreased significantly since 2011. With the rise of cloud computing infrastructure and the proliferation of research tools and datasets, affordable neural networks have grown. Other examples include the development of Microsoft’s Skype system, which can automatically translate from one language to another, and the Facebook system can provide images to blind people.

The goal of the holistic study of artificial intelligence is to create technologies that enable computers and machines to operate in intelligent ways. Common problems in the production of intelligence are divided into several sub-problems. Researchers hope that an intelligent system will demonstrate the special features or capabilities that it possesses. Early researchers developed algorithms that reasoned step by step, as people use them to solve problems or to reason. In the late 1980s and 1990s, AI research was developed primarily to draw conclusions from uncertain or incomplete data, possibilities, and economics.

Advanced statistics techniques (loosely known as deep learning), access to large amounts of information, and rapid advancements in computer learning and perception of computers. Until mid-2010, machine learning applications were used all over the world. A danger! Watson defeated two of the biggest champions, Brad Rutter and K Jennings, by a significant margin in a quiz show match on IBM’s Q&A system. Kinet, which provides a 3D body-motion interface for the Xbox 360 and Xbox One that uses algorithms derived from lengthy Al research such as intelligent personal assistants on smartphones. In March 2016, Alfago Go won 4 of 5 games in a match against champion Lee Sedol, The first computer to defeat a professional go player without handicaps became the go-systematic method. At the Future Go Conference 2016, Alfago won three games against KJ, who has been ranked number one in the world for two consecutive years.

According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a milestone year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects using Al within Google increasing to “sporadic use” in more than 2,600 projects in 2012. Clark also pointed out that the rate of error in image processing has dropped significantly since 2011. He emphasizes the rise of cloud computing infrastructure and the growth of affordable neural networks due to the proliferation of research tools and datasets. Other examples include the development of Microsoft’s Skype system, which can automatically translate from one language to another, and the Facebook system can provide images to blind people.

AI & lsquo Has made progress using problem-solving. The anatomical agent of artificial intelligence emphasizes efficiency from higher reasoning, which attempts to mimic the internal structures of the brain. Because the main purpose of AI is to imitate human power. Knowledge representation and knowledge engineering are central to artificial intelligence research. Many problems that are expected to be solved by machines require extensive knowledge of the world. The type of subject that AI will represent is the relationship between objects, properties, categories, and objects; Situation, event, condition, and time; Cause and effect; Knowledge about knowledge; And other research domains. He is said to be the highest theorist who seeks to establish the basis of all other knowledge. The most difficult problems in the representation of knowledge

  1. Default logic and aptitude problem: For example, when it comes to talking about a bird, people usually describe an animal that has a special shape, mark, and who can fly. These things are not true of all birds. John McCarthy identified the problem in 1969 as a qualification problem. AI research has tried to solve this problem.

2. Expansion of Commonsense Knowledge: The main goal of which is to have sufficient concept of machine to be able to understand the necessary concepts by reading from a source like a computer and be able to add to its own ontology.

3. Symbolic forms of common sense: Most of what people know is & lsquo; facts & rsquo; Or & lsquo; statement & rsquo; As is not presented, which they may express verbally. For example, a chess master may skip a certain chess range, or an art critic might think it is fake just by looking at a drawing. These are the subconscious and sub-symbols or tendencies of the human brain. Providing such knowledge is essentially symbolic and for conscious knowledge, it is hoped that computational intelligence or statistical AI will provide ways to represent such knowledge.

4. Education: Machine learning is a basic concept of AI research, the study of computer algorithms since its inception, which is able to improve automatically through experience. Mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is known as computational learning theory, a branch of theoretical computer science.

The goal of artificial intelligence

  1. To give computer or machine knowledge like human
  2. Giving people the ability to think like humans
  3. And it requires intelligent programs

Types of artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI): Can provide feedback/instructions by analyzing possible solutions on specific topics. For example, if a person is given the task of identifying blood groups instead of identifying blood elements, he will not be able to. This is the first step of programming logic and the weakest method.

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): This involves the use of artificial intelligence Heuristics technology. That is, any new environmental data can be collected and analyzed at a fast pace to reach a conclusion. This is called the Strong or Human-Level of Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI): It is still the subject of research. In the future, if man-made programs can rise above humans by analyzing and giving decisions/instructions, it will be the final stage of artificial intelligence.

what are the 4 types of artificial intelligence

Responsive machine: It refers to those machines designed to evaluate the information available in the environment and to solve an instantaneous problem based on that information. This type of AI does not save or memorize and therefore is not learning. Your job is to analyze the data of a particular moment, create possible solutions and choose the most efficient one. In 1990, IBM developed a system with this capability called Deep Blue, responsible for winning a game against champion chess player Gary Kasparov. Today, reactive AI is used in autonomous vehicles, for example.

Machines with limited memory: It refers to technology that uses information obtained from a database and, in addition, can record and learn basic information about the environment. This is an example of GPS technology

Machines with theories of mind: This is the kind of AI that is still going on. It is hoped that in the future certain machines will be able to understand both human thoughts and feelings and make decisions based on them. Thus, it involves social interaction. An example of this type of investigation is the Sophia IA robot, built-in 2016.

Machines with self-awareness: Self-conscious machines are those capable of holding self-conscious ideas, thoughts, and attitudes, that is, machines capable of perceiving, reasoning, and acting like human beings.

where is artificial intelligence used today

In today’s world, there is no such thing as a computer-based field where there is no practical application of artificial intelligence. In cases where artificial intelligence is being used –

  • In medical diagnosis
  • In stock market share transactions
  • Controlling robot activities
  • Possible correct solution to legal problems
  • In aviation
  • Battlefield management
  • Conduct banking activities and stock transactions
  • In creating the design
  • For cyber security
  • In video games
  • In smart cars
  • In the case of banking
  • To filter your mail spam
  • To determine the price of your trip at Uber
  • In data center management
  • In Genomics / Sequencing

Who is the father of artificial intelligence?

The father of artificial intelligence is a British scientist and mathematician Alan Mathison Turing.

Artificial Intelligence

Alan Turing is best known for his work during the heyday of World War II, in breaking the Nazi Enigma code winning the British war, and eventually building computers. One of Turing Al’s most notable contributions to the world is of course the Turing Test, formerly known as “The Copying Game”, which now has a film adaptation. The goal of the experiment was to determine when an Al system had acquired human-level intelligence – something Turing had always wondered.

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